History and Origins

This exquisite flower has played a remarkable role in the cultures and traditions of civilisations across the globe.
The Damascene Rose finds its roots in ancient Syria, where it first captivated the hearts and imaginations of those who encountered its beauty. Its association with Damascus, the capital of Syria, has given it its name and a deep cultural connection to the region. The exact date of its first appearance is challenging to determine due to the flower’s extensive cultivation and the passage of time. However, historical records and archaeological evidence suggest that the Damascene Rose has been cultivated for over 2,000 years. For centuries, the Damascene Rose has been celebrated for its elegance and fragrance, becoming a beloved symbol of the city’s beauty.
Beyond its Syrian origins, the Damascene Rose’s influence expanded across empires and civilisations. In Ancient Greece, it was admired for its charm and revered in mythology as a flower associated with the goddess Aphrodite, the embodiment of love and beauty. The rose’s essence became a coveted ingredient in perfumes, creating a fragrant legacy that has transcended time.
During the height of the Islamic Golden Age, the Damascene Rose garnered immense admiration and became an integral part of Islamic culture. Its delicate petals were celebrated in poetry, art, and literature, where it symbolised love, passion, and spiritual devotion. The rose’s presence in the Islamic world is deeply woven into the tapestry of its history and continues to resonate in various traditions.
The Damascene Rose’s allure extended its reach to Persia, where it became a cherished flower associated with royalty and luxury. Persian poets skilfully wove its imagery into their verses, using the rose as a metaphor for love, longing, and beauty. Even today, the rose holds a significant place in Persian culture, exemplifying the everlasting bond between the Damascene Rose and Persian heritage.
As explorers and merchants traversed the Silk Road, they carried the Damascene Rose’s essence and cultivation techniques to new lands. Europe’s fascination with this captivating flower began during the Crusades, where knights and pilgrims encountered its beauty and were enchanted by its fragrance. From there, the Damascene Rose found its way into royal gardens and the hearts of European nobility, solidifying its place in Western culture.
The Damascene Rose’s historical significance extends beyond borders and has left an indelible mark on the world. Its captivating beauty, fragrant essence, and symbolic value in various cultures make it an enduring symbol of love, beauty, and cultural heritage. Its journey through time brings us to the present day, where its legacy continues to thrive in the beautiful garden of the Royal Museums of Turin. Here, among the lush greenery and fragrant blooms, the Damascene Rose shrubs, graciously gifted from the Syrian people, flourish in a testament to the enduring connection between nations and the shared appreciation for this extraordinary flower

The Damascene Rose in Greek and Roman Cultures
The Damascene Rose held great significance in the cultures of both the Greeks and the Romans. These ancient civilisations recognised and cultivated the beauty of the rose, appreciating its captivating petals and enchanting fragrance.
The Greeks admired the rose as a symbol of love, beauty, and desire. While specific references to the Damascus Rose may not be found in ancient Greek literature, the rose itself was revered and associated with the goddess Aphrodite, who embodied love and passion. The Greeks believed that as Aphrodite emerged from the sea, roses sprouted from the foam on the water’s surface, further cementing the flower’s connection to love and beauty.
In Roman culture, the Damascene Rose played a prominent role as a symbol of luxury and opulence. The Romans cultivated Damascus roses in abundance, adorning their cities with their petals. The streets would be carpeted with rose petals during grand celebrations, and specific festivals known as Roselia Festivals were dedicated to honouring the beauty and significance of the rose.
Though references to the Damascene Rose may not be explicit in the works of renowned Roman poets such as Virgil and Ovid, these poets celebrated the general beauty and symbolism of roses in their writings. Virgil, in his epic poem “The Aeneid,” described the hero Aeneas discovering a magnificent garden in Carthage, filled with blooming roses. The image of the lush garden and the sweet fragrance of roses became a lasting symbol of beauty and hope.
Ovid, known for his exploration of love and desire, frequently referenced roses in his poems, using them as metaphors for love and passion. While the Damascene Rose may not be specifically mentioned, Ovid’s evocative language and imagery underscored the universal association of roses with love and desire.
The admiration for the Damascene Rose by the Greeks and Romans stands as a testament to its enduring allure and cultural significance, with its beauty celebrated in art, literature, and grand festivities throughout history.

The Damascene Rose in the Arab and Islamic World
The Damascene Rose holds deep significance in the Arab and Islamic world, where it is cherished for its rich symbolism and contributions to culture and literature.
In Islamic tradition, the rose is believed to have originated from the sweat and tears of the Prophet Mohammed, and its colour is said to be derived from his blood. This connection to the Prophet Mohammed gives the Damascene Rose a profound spiritual and sacred significance within the Islamic faith.
One of the notable figures associated with the Damascene Rose is the Persian doctor, philosopher, and scientist Avicenna (Ibn Sina). It is believed that Avicenna invented the process of distilling rose water in the 11th century, contributing to the development of the rose’s therapeutic and aromatic uses that are still appreciated today.
In Syrian Arabic, the Damascene Rose is known as “al warda al shamiya” or “al warda al baladia,” which translates to “the local rose.” The term “warda” (rose) is directly related to the word for pink, reflecting the rose’s characteristic colour.
The beauty and allure of the Damascene Rose have been celebrated in ancient and modern Arabic poetry. Renowned Damascene poet Nizar Qabbani held a particular fondness for the rose and composed a love poem titled “Warda.” In his poem “Roses and Love,” he beautifully described the Damascene Rose as “A hand full of roses from a nightingale’s garden, the Damascene rose, the queen of flowers, the symbol of love.”
The influential Persian poet Rumi, widely regarded as one of history’s greatest poets, also expressed the profound symbolism of the rose. He wrote, “The rose speaks of love silently, in a language known only to the heart.” Rumi’s words capture the mystical and transcendent nature of the rose as a universal symbol of love and beauty.
Another notable Syrian poet, Adonis, praised the beauty and grace of the Damascene Rose in his writings. He described the rose as “fragrant and delicate” and emphasised its significance as a symbol of true beauty and elegance.

The nightingale, intoxicated by their perfume,
Sings verses of passion, piercing the gloom.
Each thorn that guards the rose’s delicate grace,
Is a reminder of love’s trials we must embrace.